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Process and Diffi culties of the Decentralization of Education in Peru

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  • ペルーにおける教育の地方分権化の過程と課題
  • ペルー ニ オケル キョウイク ノ チホウ ブンケンカ ノ カテイ ト カダイ

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Abstract

Since the 1980s, the policy of decentralization in education has been implemented in many Latin-American countries. Peru focused on decentralization before then, but it was not considered an educational reform as in other countries. Peruvian decentralization focuses on the participation of the local people similar to other countries, but does more in making educational plans of each decentralized authorities. The policies of decentralization in education coexisted in the frameworks of the General Law of Education and the Pilot Plan of Municipalization. In the General Law of Education in 2003, there are four levels of decentralized authorities: Ministry of Education, Authorities of Regional Education (DRE), Local Educational Units (UGEL), and schools. On the other hand, in the framework of the Pilot Plan of Municipalization implemented by the former President Alan Garcia in 2006, municipalities were the main authorities of decentralization. In many cases, there was confusion regarding the competences between municipalities and UGELs and DREs. Although the capacity of local authorities to implement the policy of decentralization is generally doubted, and the policy lacks consistency, decentralization itself is considered necessary to break the traditional centralization of educational policy.

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