Radiation- and chemical-induced structural chromosome aberrations in human spermatozoa
Previous studies on the clastogenic effects of mutagens on human sperm chromosomes were reviewed. A marked increase of structural chromosome aberrations (SCAs) has been reported in the spermatozoa irradiated in vitro with five kinds of ionizing radiation (^137Cs γ-, ^60Co γ-, X-, and ^3H β-rays and ^252Cf neutrons). The micronucleus (MN) test with hybrid two-cell embryos generated from human sperm and hamster oocytes was shown to be useful as a simple and rapid method for assessing the effects of radiation. Radiosensitivity of human spermatozoa was highest, being followed by golden hamster, Chinese hamster and mouse spermatozoa. Chromosome-damaging effects were also found with some chemicals (bleomycin, daunomycin, methyl methanesulfonate, triethylenemelamine, neocarzinostatin, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitorosoguanidine and mitomycin C (MMC)), but not with other chemicals (urethane, nitrobenzene, dioxin, cyclophosphamide (CP), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)). The clastogenicity of chemical metabolites was confirmed for CP and BP, by using the S9-based metabolic activation system. The results of sperm chromosome analysis from cancer patients who had undergone radio- and/or chemotherapy were contradictory among investigators and further studies are necessary. The importance of mutagenicity testing with human spermatozoa is discussed.
- MUTATION RESEARCH-FUNDAMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MUTAGENESIS
MUTATION RESEARCH-FUNDAMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MUTAGENESIS 504 (1-2), 183-191, 2002-07