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稲作生産技術の地域性 : 生産関数分析による東北地域と近畿地域の比較

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  • イナサク セイサン ギジュツ ノ チイキセイ セイサン カンスウ ブンセキ ニ

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本稿の目的は, 稲作生産関数を東北と近畿の地域別, 時期別に計測して, 技術進歩の性格と労働および土地の限界生産力(均衡価格)の変化を把握し, 稲作生産の地域差の変化を明かにすることである.稲作生産関数は, 荏開津・茂野モデルに従って, 生産過程を生物学的・化学的過程(BC過程)と機械的過程(M過程)とに分け, 各過程ごとに計測した.分析結果は下記のとおりである.1)稲作生産のM過程は, 1960年代では, 東北に比べて近畿では, 労働使用, 資本節約的であり, BC過程は, 経常財使用, 土地節約的性格が強かった.2)両地域の稲作生産では, その後, 圃場と灌漑排水施設の整備によって, 労働節約, 資本使用的な技術が進展し, 規模の経済性が増大した.また, 優良品種の普及によって, 経常財節約, 土地使用的技術が進歩した.これらの技術進歩は, 近畿より東北で大きかったために, 両地域の稲作技術は, ほぼ類似した性格を示すようになった.3)稲作の均衡労賃は, 両地域のすべての時期を通じて, 大規模経営ほど高いが, 1970年代の初期までは, 東北の方が近畿よりもより高く, 均衡地代は逆であった.しかし, その後の稲作技術の変化によって, これらはいずれも地域間で均等化する傾向を示してきた.

The purpose of this paper is to estimate rice production functions in TOHOKU and KINKI regions by periods, for understanding the characteristics of technological progress. According to the EGAITSU-SIGENO model, the rice production process is divided into a mechanical process and a biological-chemical process, and the production function is composed of these two processes. The major findings are as follows. (1) In the 1960s, rice production in KINKI region was relatively more labor using capital saving, and more current inputs using land saving than in TOHOKU region. (2) After 1970, rice production techonology in both regions changed to more labor saving and capital using one, due mainly to increasing scale economies by means of the enlargement of paddy fields and construction of irrigation and drainage systems, while changing to more current inputs saving and land using one due to the diffusion of improved varities. (3) Rice production has changed to be more labor saving capital using and current inputs saving land using in KINKI than in TOHOKU. As a result, rice productoin in both regions has tended to reveal similar characteristics. (4) During the whole period in both regions, the larger the farm size, the higher the equilibrium wage of rice production. Until the beginning of the 1970s, the equilibrium wages in TOHOKU region were higher than in KINKI region for all the farm sizes, but the opposite was the case for the equilibrium land rents. After that, the equilibrium wages and land rents in both regions have tended to converge because of the changes in rice production technology.

source:The technical bulletin of Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University



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