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Samantapāsādikā Bāhiranidānaとパーリ年代記の比較研究

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  • A Comparative Study of the ""Bāhiranidāna"" in the Samantapāsādikā and the Pāli Chronicles : With a Focus on Their Differences

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The ""Bāhiranidāna,"" representing the opening section of the Samantapāsādikā attributed to Buddhaghosa(ca.5th cent.A.D.), presents a history of the Buddhist community that is almost identical in content to that described in the Dīpavamsa and Mahāvamsa, two early Pāli chronicles of Sri Lanka. These three works are all early histories of the Vibhajyavādin, and since they systematically describe similar traditions relating to the history of Indian Buddhism after the Buddha's death and the establishment of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, they have been considered to be of equal value as historical sources. A detailed examination reveals, however, that each of these three works has its own distinctive features. The composition of the ""Bāhiranidāna"" and the Pāli chronicles was motivated by different interests, and these differing motives of their respective authors have also exerted considerable influence on the content of their legends. Firstly, the chief purpose of the ""Bāhiranidāna"" is to explain the origins of the Vinaya. Buddhaghosa's aim was to present a historical account of the Vinaya prior to beginning his full-scale commentary on the Vinaya-Piţaka, and by showing the historical course of events whereby the Vinaya that had been transmitted to him had evolved, he sought to establish its authority. For this reason he explains in great detail the kamma to be performed in the Buddhist sańgha and the duties of monks. The Pāli chronicles, on the other hand, deal with the overall history of Sri Lanka from a Buddhist perspective, and the authors'interests may be assumed to have lain both in describing the nation's history and in demonstrating the close connections between Buddhism and their own country. This propensity may be seen in the traditions relating to the Buddha's three visits to Sri Lanka and the arrival in Sri Lanka of Vijaya, the ancestor of the Sinhalese, that are recorded in the opening sections of the chronicles. In addition, there is also a tendency in these three works for the content of the legends and dynastic history to increase in detail the later their date of composition. In other words, it is to be observed that the simplest accounts are to be found in the Dīpavamsa, the earliest of these three works, with some augmentation to be seen in the somewhat later ""Bāhiranidāna,"" while in the Mahāvamsa not only have the legends become more detailed, but attempts are also made to lend authority to people and events related to the Mahāvihāra sect by linking them to these legends. Thus, whereas the ""Bāhiranidāna"" portrays the history required by the Vinaya-Pitaka while presenting an ideal picture of the Vinaya, the Pāli chronicles depict the history necessary for the credibility of their myths, including those pertaining to kingship. Thus, the ""Bāhiranidāna"" was written with the pure aim of recording the history of the Vinaya, while the Pāli chronicles set out to describe the predestined relationship between Sri Lanka and Buddhism. On the basis of this characteristic of the chronicles, it could perhaps be surmised that Sri Lanka's religious. unification and political unification occurred simultaneously as a result of the introduction of Buddhism and the influence of King Asoka. As may be inferred from the fact that the coronation regalia were initially brought to Sri Lanka by Asoka, a unified state probably first emerged in Sri Lanka under the influence of Asoka, and it is to be surmised that in Sri Lanka political unification and the introduction of Buddhism were inseparably linked. With the emergence of a unified state, the unification of its history would also have become necessary, presumably resulting in the compilation of the Dīpavamsa. The Mahāvamsa, on the other hand, may be regarded as a work in which great prominence was given to the additional aim of establishing the authority of the Mahāvihāra sect both inside and outside the sect.


  • インド哲学仏教学研究

    インド哲学仏教学研究 4 16-28, 1996-12-20


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