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Unusual coelom formation in the direct-type developing sand dollar Peronella japonica

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Abstract

Peronella japonica is a sand dollar with a zygote that develops into an abbreviated pluteus but then metamorphoses on day three. The adult rudiment formation is unique; it uses a median position of the hydrocoel and a stomodeum-like invagination of vestibule that covers the dorsal side of the hydrocoel. However, the developmental processes underlying coelom formation remain unclear. In this study, we examined this process by reconstructing three-dimensional images from serial sections of larvae. We show that the left coelom developed by both schizocoely and enterocoely from the archenteron tip, whereas the hydrocoel and right coelom formed by enterocoely from the archenteron. This coelom formation arranged the coelomic compartments directly along the adult oral-aboral axis by skipping the initial bilateral phases. Furthermore, our data indicate P. japonica retains ancestral asymmetry along the left-right axis in the location of the adult rudiment. Developmental Dynamics, 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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