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Characteristics of' daily living activities im the elderly

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  • 在宅高齢者の日常生活動作の特徴
  • ザイタク コウレイシャ ノ ニチジョウ セイカツ ドウサ ノ トクチョウ

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted to determine the characteristics of 133 activities of daily living (ADLs) in 1308 elderly people aged 60-88 years, focusing on difficulty of ADL achievement, changes with age, and sex differences. The major findings were as follows: 1) High-difficulty activities included loconaotion, stability, and posture-change systems that belonged mainly to domains II (activities related tcc daily life) and III (creative activities). The achievement of these ADLs was considerably burdensome because they demand physical exertion such as static strength and muscular endurance of the upper limbs and trunk, balance, and flexibility. On the other hand, low-difficulty activities included locomotion and manipulation systems that belonged to domains I (fundamental life activities) and II, which had been performed almost every day and habitually since childhood. 2) Achievement rates for high-difficulty activities, including locomotion, stability, and posture-change systems of domains II and III, were higher in males than in females. Sex differences in physicat fitness were reflected in these achievements. Experience and habit of some ADLs in adolescence and adulthood might have influenced their achievement, and judgment of achievement possibility. Sex differences were not observed in the achievement of everyday and habitual ADLs, which did not require severe physical exertion. 3) The achievement of most activities including locomotion, stability, manipulation, and posture-change systems decreased with age irn both sexes. High-difficulty activities of locomotion and on program and manipulation systems showed a greater decrease with age, suggesting that a decrease in muscular strength and balance is related to These achievements. Some activities demonstrated a marked decrease in achievement from 75 years of age or a decrease at each age-level. Activities that differed with regard to decrease of achievement in both sexes were divided into two groups: those with high difficulty in the locomotion system and those with low difficulty in the manipulation system of the upper limbs.

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