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The meninges (dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater) are the site of numerous pathological lesions including inflammation and neoplasm. Meningiomas are the most frequently observed lesions and the most common of primary meningeal tumors. Over the years, meningiomas have been histologically classified and some entities have been added to the cadre of meningioma variants, while others have been designated as other types and tumors. The 2,000 revision of the WHO system provided diagnostic guidelines. Most meningiomas are biologically benign and correspond to WHO grade I. However, certain meningiomas have an increased tendency to recur or follow an aggressive clinical behavior and are assigned to WHO grade II and III. Atypical meningioma, clear cell meningioma and chordoid meningioma, corresponding to WHO grade II, have a substantially increased incidence of recurrence. Rhabdoid meningioma, papillary meningioma and anaplastic meningioma, corresponding to WHO grade III, have an even higher incidence of recurrence and may be associated with systemic metastasis or brain invasion.
- Japanese Journal of Neurosurgery
Japanese Journal of Neurosurgery 14 (12), 761-771, 2005
The Japanese Congress of Neurological Surgeons