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Other Title
  • 「東大寺印」と「造東寺印」 : 正倉院文書の分析から(Ⅳ. 論考 / 2. 古代印論 : 出土・伝世印と印影)
  • トウダイジイン ト ゾウトウジイン ショウソウイン ブンショ ノ ブンセキ カラ

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The Shōsō-In Documents (正倉院文書), classified as extremely important materials for ascertaining the actual state of the documentary governance of Japan in old times, bear a variety of old seals as already known to the people concerned. This paper discusses, among others, the “Tōdaiji Seal” (東大寺印) and the “Zōtōji Seal” (造東寺印) which are considered to have had a close relationship particularly with the management system of Tōdaiji Temple, trying to give a new perspective over the Shōsō-in Documents, so far studied principally with respect to mutual positional relationship of the contexts of individual documents separated into a plural number of sheets, from the viewpoint of studies on seal marks.Three types of “Tōdaiji Seals” appearing in the Shōsō-in Documents were already identified, and two of the said three are ascertained as old seal marks. Identically, three type of “Zōtōji Seals” were also identified, but only one type was determined as an old time seal. Based on this fact, the changes and mutual relationship of both the “Tōdaiji Seals” and “Zōtōji Seals” can be confirmed as shown below.The Tōdaiji Seal, cast at and before the end of the 5th year of Tempyōhōji (A.D.761), was recast simultaneously with the seal marks of other temples were cast officially and issued in the 2nd year of Hōki (A.D.771). The presence of the Zōtōji Seal during the period from the October of the 4th year of Tempyōshōhō (A.D.751) to September of the 2nd year of Hōki (A.D.771) was confirmed, but it is considered that the office of Zōtōdaiji-shi (造東大寺司) used the Zōtōji Seal in their internal documents while putting the Tōdaiji Seal in the documents issued outside the temple.In addition, after the 4th year of Tempyōshōhō, the officials of Zōtōdaiji-shi and Sangō (三綱) of Tōdaiji Temple used in their mutually exchanged documents the seals bearing their sections to which they belonged. This shows that after the middle of the Nara era, a administrative system using official documents affixed with seals was being established in Tōdaiji Temple including the offices of Zōtōdaiji-shi and Sangō managing household of Tōdaiji Temple.




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