- Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Storage Battery Used with Renewable Energy Considering the Energy Chain
This paper presents the change of CO2 emission when battery energy storage systems (BESS) are used for increasing self-use of PV energy from rooftop panels, and for decreasing PV output curtailment. A traditional evaluation uses an annual CO2 emission intensity and the charge-discharge loss is evaluated, and then the emission is increased. However, when PV system is largely penetrated and the PV energy curtailment is required by power system constraints, BESS can decrease the curtailment as well as the evening demand when the rate of thermal power is large, and increase the daytime demand when the rate of PV energy is high. So, BESS can decrease CO2 emission considering hourly CO2 emission intensity. Authors quantify these effects by use of an optimization model to minimize annual power generation costs, and a model to minimize annual costs of houses with PV and BESS, and then shows energy chain diagram including energy flow between generation plants and customers. The CO2 emissions from business use customers with PV and BESS, and power charging demand for EV are also evaluated using hourly CO2 emission intensity. Authors show BESS can decrease CO2 emission.
エネルギー・資源学会論文誌 40 (3), 69-77, 2019