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Bamiyan consists of three groups of caves: one is the group of 750 caves in the main cliff facing the south, one and a half kilometer in width, with two colossal images of Buddhas in the east and the west; the second is the Foladi Caves with thirty caves located in the southwest; and the third is the Kakrak Caves with eighty caves situated in the southeast. According to the record of Xuanzang, a royal castle and monasteries were existed on the ground once, however, those relics are not discovered so far. Apart from the caves, only the ruin of a stupa remains in the eastern side of the main cliff. The records of Xuanzang (AD.629 or 630) and Huichao (AD.727) are the only available documents relating to the chronology of the great sites in Bamiyan. Those are extremely important as historical sources, which mention not only the state of Buddhism in Bamiyan but also the climate, the life style of the people, the produces and the politics. With the help of those records, we understand that Buddhism was highly respected in Bamiyan and was practiced by the king and the commoners. However, from those records we still do not know when the colossal images of Buddha and the caves were created. So far, the approximate dating of Bamiyan arts has been examined as a comparative study from the art historical point of view, for when the two colossi, many caves, the mural paintings and the molding images of Buddha were produced. Consequently, we are facing a situation that we cannot make any definite chronology of Bamiyan arts because of the lack of reliable materials and the discrepancies of opinions. This time, the radiocarbon dating calibration to the relics from Bamiyan has been executed for the first time. The total number of samples taken for examination is forty-four in which thirty-three samples of the straw crumbs mixed with the plaster of mural paintings and one sample of wooden joints from the main cliff of the Bamiyan Caves; six samples of the straw crumbs from the Foladi Caves; two samples of the straw crumbs from the Kakrak Caves; two samples of the straw crumbs from the Dauti Caves. From the results of this calibration, we could obtain some new perspectives of the wide ranged chronology for the Bamiyan Caves. It has been calculated that the samples are belonged to the period between around AD. 450 and 850, which corresponds with the findings from the current studies of art history on Barmyan and it is very plausible. However, it is inevitable to investigate a particular painting in each cave, observing with the result of this calibration and the studies of art history. Regrettably many of the important relics in Bamiyan arts were not included with the samples of this calibration, such as the ceiling paintings in the niche of the Eastern and the Western colossal Buddhas, the interesting mural paintings from three caves with the seated big images of Buddha (i.e. Caves E, H and I: although one sample of the straw crumbs from the sidewall of Cave I was examined this time). If we collected more samples from the important relics and calibrated them, we could gain further vital information for a comprehensive chronology of the Bamiyan arts. This time, samples to be examined were collected from the caves Lower A, Ba, Bd, Ca and its vestibule, Cb, D and its vestibule, D1, Ee, Fa, Fc, I, Jb, Jd, Je, Jg, K3, M, Na, Sa, Z1 in the main cliff of Bamiyan. Samples were also collected from the caves Nos. 2, 4, 5 and 6 in Foladi; Nos. 42 and 43 of the Kakrak Caves. The dating based on the results from the calibration of those samples extends the range of A.D. 450 to 850 which can be divided into three periods: (I)around the middle of fifth century to sixth century; (II)the seventh century; and (III)around the eighth century to the middle of ninth century. Each of the periods can be further divided into two or three sub-periods. The dating of those samples is as follows: I (1) From the middle of fifth century to the middle of sixth century : M, Jb, Jd, Je, and Jg (2) From the middle to the end of sixth century: Ca, Ca vestibule, and Cb (3) From the middle of sixth century to the early seventh century : D1 and Lower A II (1) From the early seventh century to the late seventh century: D, D vestibule, Na, and Sa (2) From the middle of seventh century to the late seventh century: Fa, Ba, and East III III (1) From the late seventh century to the late eighth century : Bd, Ee, K3, and I (2) From the late eighth century to the late ninth century : Fc(?) and Z1 In this paper, I am going to review the past studies in the art history on Bamiyan sites, focusing on the chronological issue. And then, I will specifically analyze the ressults of the carbon dating calibration executed this time with reference from the chronology in the art history.
第17回名古屋大学タンデトロン加速器質量分析計シンポジウム平成16(2004)年度報告 Proceedings of the 17th symposiumon Researches Using the Tandetron AMS System at Nagoya University in 2004\日時:平成17 (2005)年1月24日(月)､25日(火) 会場:名古屋大学シンポジオン Date:January 24th and 25th, 2005 Place:Nagoya University Symposion Hall
名古屋大学加速器質量分析計業績報告書 16 13-33, 2005-03