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Are Normative Japanese Happy?: Reconsideration of "Futsu" Conception among Japanese

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Other Title
  • 「ふつう」であることの安心感(2):集団規範からの逸脱という観点から
  • フツウ デ アル コト ノ アンシンカン 2 シュウダン キハン カラ ノ イツダツ ト イウ カンテン カラ

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Abstract

日本人における「ふつう」概念の重要性について検討するため,場面想定法を用いた 3 つの質問紙実験をおこなった.自己が周囲の他者と同じ行動をとる状況と異なる行動をとる状況を設定し,感情状態への影響を検討した.研究 1 では,拘束力の高い状況と低い状況を設定して検討したところ,拘束力の高い状況においては周囲の他者と同じ行動をとることが感情状態に影響を与えることが示唆された.研究 2 では,命令的規範と記述的規範を独立に操作して検討をおこない,周囲の他者と同じ行動をとることが否定的感情や安静状態に影響を与えていることが示唆された.研究 3 では,文化的規範からの逸脱の程度を 3 水準設定して検討をおこない,周囲の行動が極端に逸脱した状況以外では,否定的感情と安静状態への影響が認められた.3つの研究を通じて,他者と比較して「ふつう」であることが否定的感情の低さや安静状態の高さをもたらすことが明確となった.

Three experimental questionnaire surveys examined the importance of the conception of “futsu” among Japanese. In the 3 studies, an imaginary story about a normative or deviant person within a group was presented to each respondent. The respondent was required to assume oneself as the leading character of the story, and to rate their affective estimations in the given situations. In study 1, the effects of being normative/deviant on the emotions were examined in high- and low-binding situations. The respondents with the normative story reported “futsu” cognition and calmness more than ones with the deviant story. The results indicated that comparison with the surrounding others might influence on the affective state. Study 2 manipulated injunctive and descriptive norm independently. The result suggested that descriptive norm rather than injunctive norm influenced the affective state. Thus people who behaved the same as the surrounding others even when did not follow the injunctive norm would feel calm and less negative. In study 3, three conditions with different degrees of deviance were presented. Being consistent with study 1 and 2, the participants with the normative situations estimated more calmness and less negative affect. The only exception was that the surroundings were too deviant from injunctive norm, and the situation was recognized as curious. These results revealed that (descriptive) normativeness would bring psychological calmness and less negative affect on Japanese people.

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