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A STUDY ON ‘PLACE’ FUNCTION OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING BUS STOPS IN JAPANESE LARGE CITIES

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  • 「場」の機能に配慮した国内大都市のバス停周辺環境のあり方に関する研究
  • 「 バ 」 ノ キノウ ニ ハイリョ シタ コクナイ ダイトシ ノ バステイシュウヘン カンキョウ ノ アリカタ ニ カンスル ケンキュウ

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Abstract

<p> Enhancing the function of "place" is key to generate "user-oriented design". The research aims to clarify the spatial elements and their appropriate layout of the built environment surrounding bus stops co-existing with the function of "place" for street users, in consideration of dense Japanese urban contexts.</p><p> First, it conducted a literature review on international placemaking schemes. It found that a practical scheme named "Thinking beyond the Station" indicates there are 4 points of the index to measure the performance of “places”. Subsequently, the research intended to find out how current bus stops in Japan perform as “place” for residents and bus users from the viewpoints of such place performance index and to designate the appropriate planning and management scheme.</p><p> Edogawa ward in Tokyo was selected as a case study site since it is a Japanese representative transit environment planning case coordinated with neighbor open spaces. The policy in the 1980s in the Edogawa ward prepared a comprehensive bus stop design scheme involving private landowners which are not seen in the general standards in other cities. The cross-tabulation and multivariate analysis were implemented, applying the findings of the questionnaire and field survey to collect both subjective data of users’ opinions to the bus stop environment and objective data of users’ activity. As a result, bus users tend to access just before the arrival time of buses. The waiting time is short due to the relatively high frequency of arrival of the bus. The number of daily users in the pocket park portion is less than 30%. Therefore, even there is a possibility that the issue of the pocket park was underestimated because there are many respondents with not much experience of use, the majority of the users pointed out no significant issues. Besides, it was suggested that the recognition of the pocket parks would lead to an increase in interest in management. The objective data revealed "private sector cooperation for bench installation" and "installation in front of the facility which is open to the general public" affect choices for staying. Because the R2 value is rather small, the observation survey at another sample in the Setagaya ward was also conducted to consider the additional possible factors to induce the user’s activities. The result suggested that "visual information of approaching bus", "depth and room of open space", "connection with a building or waiting space in building" may influence the length of use time.</p><p> The paper concluded that the frontage land use and location of the seating facility might influence users’ stational activities by the results above. The mechanism to foster attachment to the place is also considered as keys to a better place. The spatial design scheme in Edogawa has shaped less attachment to the transit environment by local users and neighbors even though it has achieved most of the place performance index. The lack of attachment causes some cases of the abolition of agreement with landowners. The usage time associated with public transportation is too short time to gather interests in the environment. The mechanism should include a particular process to create recognition as a local open space. It also indicated the necessity of the lower limit setting of the size as an integrated open space to keep the quality of place.</p>

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