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Other Title
  • 明治の西洋動物学の黎明 Ⅱ―木下熊雄とそのグローバル性の背景
  • メイジ ノ セイヨウ ドウブツガク ノ レイメイ(2)キノシタ クマオ ト ソノ グローバルセイ ノ ハイケイ

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Dr.Kumao Kinoshita was a researcher on Cold-Water Octocoral(CWOC) during the Meiji period (1868-1912). He studied octocoral (Coelenterate: Anthozoa:Octocorallia)at the Zoological Laboratory of the Imperial University of Tokyo (University of Tokyo). He wrote several English,German and Japanese scientific papers and reports but never had any foreign visit in his life. However, he always had the global view from inside of Japan. This manuscript focus on the background of the international and global of Dr. Kumao Kinoshita (1881-1947)from same marine biologist’s standpoint as Dr. Kinoshita, not from the bibliography writer’s or local history researcher’s standpoint. For the general information of Dr. Kinoshita’s life, please refer Matsumoto 2011. First, the global background of locality Ikura, Kumamoto prefecture where Dr.Kinoshita has born,spent and ended his life. Ikura was the international trade port over several centuries. The city has been international and the people from China and maybe from other foreign countries lived in this city. His families and his neighbor often used vessels and Japanese boats for transporting and traveling because the city was located in front of Ariake sea. Second, the period of the last days of the Shogunate (Bakumatsu)-Meiji require a preparation for the national defense from foreign countries. Because of the colonial policy on Asia by western countries, several foreign countries prowled around Japan those days. Family Kinoshita had a roots of sword maker for the federal load Kiyomasa Kato of Higo-Kumamoto han. And therefore they had a role to make firearm during the period for the defense purpose and carefully watch out the world trends with teaching coast guards of Higo-Kumamoto han. Third, important background of Dr. Kumao Kinoshita was the people of family and interfamilial relationship. His father Sukeyuki Kinoshita and his grandfather Hatsutaro Kinoshita were leading figure of the landed gentry of Tamana, Higo-Kumamoto han (Kumamoto prefecture). Family Kinoshita always had global view and perspectives for the current state and for the education as landed gentry. They have contributed to make school and system to teach the fundamental knowledge and view for the dynamic world. The Bakumatsu-Meiji was the period that Japanese learned the way of Western culture and science. Most of scientist blindly obey everything the western literature said. However Dr. Kinoshita alerted that not to obey barbarian’s word without thinking the meaning of data set by yourself for the science. These three background in this manuscript compose Dr. Kumao Kinoshita’s globalism and perspectively for the worlds.



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