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[論文] 富士山北面における生業の展開と保護地域制度

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  • [Article] Development of Local Subsistence Activities and Protected Area Regime on the Northern Slope of Mt. Fuji

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Abstract

本研究は,富士山北斜面にて行われてきた生業について,(1)特に採取活動の実態を通時的に明らかにし,(2)これが国立公園制度といかなる関係を持ってきたかを検討した。この地域では,近世から富士山の高山帯に至るまでの広大な山野を背景とした生業活動が繰り広げられていた。大正時代から昭和初期にかけて訪れた国立公園指定と観光開発の動きの中で,富士山北斜面の入会(いりあい)住民はこの動きに主体的にかかわることはなかった。一方で,近世より継続されてきた富士山入会地での資源採取は,入会地の地盤が国有,皇室有,県有と変わる中で,管理の仕組みが精緻化し,特に今に続く入山鑑札制度として基盤が確立した。富士山の国立公園指定により,入会地のほぼ全域が国立公園の区域に包含され,現行制度においては,高山帯および亜高山帯は特別保護地区あるいは特別地域として,旧来の採取活動を停止しうるような規制内容を持っている。しかしながら,各入会組合は依然として入山鑑札を発行し,高山帯であっても人々の採取を容認している。これを可能にするものとして,現行法である自然公園法により特別保護地区が新設される際に,厚生省と農林省間で交わされた覚書で,区域設定前からの慣行は着手行為として規制の対象外とする了解事項が存在する。富士山北麓地域では,少なくとも近世まで遡ることのできる採取活動が実質的に継続しており,かつ,形式的にも鑑札制度があるために採取活動の存在が公認しうるものになっていることが,着手行為としての正当性を担保しているものと考えられた。一方で,入会組合と国立公園管理者の間での情報共有は行われておらず,将来的には,対立が引き起こされる可能性が指摘できる。

This paper clarifies the reality of subsistence activities, especially regarding the gathering of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) historically, and investigates how such activities have been influenced by the national park system. Records of local people engaging in various gathering activities on the vast range of the northern slope of Mt. Fuji,where they accessed common lands, date back to the beginning of the 18th century, at the latest. Their activities occasionally reach the alpine area of the mountain. After the Meiji era (1860s-1912), these common lands were owned by the government, then the imperial court, and, finally,Yamanashi Prefecture. Accordingly, the commons became substantially institutionalized; in particular, the license system that allows gathering activities even in the alpine area of Mt. Fuji has been established and refined. While a movement advocating that Mt. Fuji and its surrounding area be declared a national park took place during the Taisho era and the beginning of the Showa era (1910s-1930s), local people did not actively commit to it. As Mt. Fuji was designated as a national park in 1931, the whole area of the commons at Mt. Fuji was brought under the national park system. The current national park system designates the alpine and subalpine zone of Mt. Fuji as special protection areas or special areas, which may prohibit the traditional gathering activities. However, commoners' associations still issue licenses for gathering activities even for the alpine zone. When the current "Natural Parks Act," which established a new system including special protection areas, was enforced in 1965, the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry agreed that local people's activities regarding agriculture and forestry should not be restricted by the new national park system; this would be possible by treating these activities as "existing practice" before the time of enforcement. This is why gathering activities at special protection areas or special areas of the national park system are permitted. In the case of Mt. Fuji, this paper considers that the legitimacy of treating the case as an "existing practice" is guaranteed by the fact that the local gathering activities at alpine area can be dated back to before the Meiji era and thatThe activities can be officially recognized because of the license system. However, it can be stated that there is no proper communication between commoners' associations and the local managers of the national park, so conflict may possibly occur in the future.

source:https://www.rekihaku.ac.jp/outline/publication/ronbun/ronbun9/index.html#no215

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