LONG-TERM RUNOFF CALCULATION CONSIDERING CHANGE OF SNOW PACK CONDITION
In order to conduct adaptive water management for an entire watershed, long-term hydrologic conditions must be examined thoroughly. Hydrologic processes related to snow play a particularly important role in cold, snowy regions. Therefore, reliable estimates of snow accumulation and snowmelt are needed to perform effective water management, while evapotranspiration is also necessary to determine the water budget in an entire watershed. This paper focuses on the hydrologic processes reproduced by a Two-layer Model that deals with the heat balance in the atmosphere, in the vegetation layer and at the ground surface, as well as long-term runoff characteristics calculated by the Tank Model. The proposed method successfully quantified the change of snow cover in relation to the evaluation of hydrologic cycle as well as the effects of vegetation on the hydrological processes using routine meteorological data. Moreover, the Two-layer Model integrated the effects of changes in snow cover and the Tank Model was properly fine-tuned, so that the long-term hydrological factors and hydrologic cycle of a cold, snowy region were accurately simulated.
- Journal of Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engineering
Journal of Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engineering 22 (2), 155-169, 2004-11