The Anomalous Temperatures of Cu and Their Physical Significance. (II, 3)
The experimental evidences concerning anomalous changes of various properties of Cu, with temperature, were studied in literature, and it was found that four anomalous temperatures, including the melting point, exist, the values being 503°, 553°, 823° and 1356°K (mp), and that in these temperatures and the absolute zero, there exists a regurality as shown in the following table where the numbers in parentheses show the ratios of the intervals between the adjacent temperatures in each group. This regurality was understood by the writer to be identical ; in nature, with Lande's interval rule in atomic spectra in the case of odd multiplicity, and, accordingly, it was inferred that the temperatures in each of the groups, II and I, would correspond to the components of the fine structures of the energy levels, E_1 and E_2 respectively. These levels, as well as E_3 and E_4 had been determined from experimental data, as those associated with the valence electron, their energy positions being in the order of E_1, E_2, E_3 and E_4. Further, it was considered that each of E_1 and E_2 is associated with two electrons and two atoms, hence, they may be denoted as, E_1 : (A_1, B_1) ^3D1, 2, 3 E_2 : (A_2, B_2) ^3D3, 2, 1 where A_1, B_1 and A_1, B_2 denote two pairs of atoms which associate respectively with the levels, E_1 and E_2, forming the diatomic molecules, (A_1, B_1) and (A_2, B_2). Concerning E_3 and E_4, it was assumed that, as in the case of Zn, there exist two groups of anomalies in low temperature range, which show the multiple structures of E_3 and E_4, respectively. Further it was assumed that the electrons associating with E_3 and E_4 are identical with those which associate to E_l and E_2, respectively, and they oscillate between E_1 and E_3, E_2 and E_4, respectively. Furthermore, that these oscillations take place, in resonance, in the group of the above molecules of the same kind, and, accordingly the molecules in the above group are bound mutually by the energy of the resonance exchange. On the other hand, it was proved previously that, when the electron is in E_3 or E_4, it plays the role of electric conduction, but, in E_1 or E_2, it binds the atoms firmly, and so, with the above idea the important properties of metals were explained consistently.
- Science reports of the Research Institutes, Tohoku University. Ser. A, Physics, chemistry and metallurgy
Science reports of the Research Institutes, Tohoku University. Ser. A, Physics, chemistry and metallurgy 3 661-686, 1951