Cooling the melt of 90% bismuth alloy from 300℃ to various measuring temperatures at the rate of 3.5℃/min, the relation between draining time and holding duration at each temperature was investigated. It was recognized that almost all the primary crystallization occurred after holding it for ca. 10 minutes and reached the equilibrium state after holding it for 30 minutes. The influence of cooling velocity was also investigated. The cooling procedure even at a slower rate than 0.5℃/min was sufficient to crystallize primary crystals in an equilibrium state.
Science reports of the Research Institutes, Tohoku University. Ser. A, Physics, chemistry and metallurgy 3 657-660, 1951