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語りえぬ記憶と復興への学習―ふたつの大震災の間で―

書誌事項

タイトル別名
  • Inexpressible Memories and Learning for Reconstruction : Between the Two Major Earthquake Disasters in Postwar Japan

抄録

学校における教師と子どもたちの震災学習は、深い傷痕を残す悲痛の記憶をいかに語り互いに共有することができるのかという根源的な矛盾に直面し、それに挑戦するものになる。本論文では、このような矛盾を乗り越えてゆく教育実践は可能かという問いへアプローチするために、震災体験からの学習と教育の事例分析を、活動理論の枠組みにもとづき行った。分析の結果、子どもたちが、学校における震災学習を通じ、学校外のさまざまな「学びの提供者」と出会い、結びつながることによって、新たな支えあいの文化と生活を創造してゆく可能性が明らかとなった。

The two major earthquake disasters in the postwar period of Japan-the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995) and the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011)-were considerably different types of disasters; however, in terms of immense suffering and sorrow, both disasters caused deep and lasting scars in the survivors. For the survivors, this experience of severe grief is, in a sense, something that "cannot be put into words" or "cannot be narrated." This is because even language and speech can be utterly useless in representing incidents and past experiences that an individual believes he or she has truly experienced. The problem here is the futility of communicating the original and authentic meaning of the experience. Disaster learning activities conducted by teachers and children in schools involve confronting with and tackling a fundamental contradiction: how can such memories of deep sorrow be expressed and shared? In order to tackle the question of whether pedagogical practice can overcome such a contradiction, this article analyzed three cases of reconstruction-oriented learning. The article then sought to shed light on the role that can be played by learning activities, in which teachers and children participate, and their significance. Drawing upon the framework of cultural-historical activity theory, the article analyzed teaching and learning from such experiences of disaster. Activity theory offers a conceptual framework that views the object-oriented collective activity system as the basic unit of analysis of human practices and development as a rich source of ideas and tools for modeling future innovative activities. The results clarified the following characteristics of the pedagogical practice. ● Every pedagogical practice overcame the institutional boundaries of the so-called encapsulation of traditional school learning, which were sealed within the walls of textbooks and classroom. ● The "objects" of learning were expanded and an expansive learning activity toward the discovery and creation of problems in the real life-world of disasters was created. ● The activity created "knots" of collaboration and exchange with various communities, organizations, and participants outside school, which could be described figuratively as "knotworking" learning activities. Through this, children were given opportunities to meet and form bonds with the "providers of learning" who could offer learning that was different from textbooks. Thus, disaster learning has the potentiality to create learning activities that will contribute toward changing surrounding communities and society for the better. This will be realized through forging knots between teachers, children, and a variety of partners outside school and helping to create a disaster subculture on the basis of new mutual support.

<特集>災害と教育/教育学

収録刊行物

  • 教育学研究

    教育学研究 79 (4), 367-379, 2012-12-30

    日本教育学会

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詳細情報

  • CRID
    1050001202911280896
  • ISSN
    0387-3161
  • Web Site
    http://hdl.handle.net/10112/7868
  • 本文言語コード
    ja
  • 資料種別
    journal article
  • データソース種別
    • IRDB
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