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耕地などの水食に関する文献的研究 (総説)

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Erosion caused by water (rainfall and snowmelt) and strong wind is one of the most important problems for agriculture in the world. Intensive rainfall-induced erosion from farmlands generally developes along the steps of rain drop erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and finally gully erosion. Water erosion which includes discharge of sediment, nutrient, and other chemicals contributes not only to the reduced soil productivity, but also to the pollution of watershed environment. In this article is triedto review, with special reference to the methodology involved, the research works of water erosion in recent years. Contents are divided into six chapters: 1. Mechanisms of water erosion, 2. USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation), 3. Other mathematicalprediction models, 4. Prediction of erosion rate for natural watersheds by measuring radioactive fallout cocentration, 5. Countermeasures, 6. Water erosion and river pollution. Finally, relevant problems remained to be solved are enumerated.

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