殺すことと死ぬにまかせることの間 : 道徳的差異と対称性について
- Between killing and letting die: its moral difference and “the moral symmetry”
In this paper, I discuss whether there are some moral diﬀerences between killing and letting die. Based on “the moral equivalence(Rachels)” or “the moral symmetry principle(Tooley)”, Rachels and \Tooley argue that there is no moral diﬀerence between killing and letting die. They thereby conclude that there is no moral diﬀerence between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia, and that active \euthanasia is also morally acceptable.\I argue two points. First, they give counterexamples for a moral principle “All killings are morally wrong.” This doesn.t justify individual actions such as giving lethal injection, withholding life \support treatment. Their claims don.t support individual actions in actual clinical practices. Second, I argue about a relationship between “the moral symmetry principle” and other moral principles. When \we evaluate an action using a moral principle, it is not always the case that “the moral symmetry principle” by itself takes precedence over other moral principles. To support the idea, some additional \justiﬁcation is required to “the moral symmetry principle” used in case of euthanasia. Based on these points, I conclude that their attempts to argue for active euthanasia don.t succeed.
人間文化創成科学論叢 16 69-76, 2014-03-31