タマンシスワ教育理念の連続性と不連続性 (<特集>インドネシア国民の形成 : 故土屋健治教授を偲んで)
- The Transformation of Tamansiswa's Principles (<Special Issue>The Formation of the Indonesian Nation :In Memory of the Late Professor Kenji Tsuchiya)
Since its founding in 1922 by Ki Hajar Dewantara, the Tamansiswa school has often faced difficulties that threatened its continuation. This article aims to clarify how and why Tamansiswa kept its principles and sometimes revised them in order to overcome its difficulities. When the colonial government issued the so-called Wild Schools Ordinance in 1932,placing restrictions on educational activities, Tamansiswa took a leading role in the struggle to abolish the ordinance. In its struggle Tamansiswa used the principle of non-cooperation with the colonial government. After Indonesian independence, this principle was reversed to one of cooperation with Indonesian government. The new principles of Tamansiswa (Pancadarma) were formulated in order to correspond with Pancasila, the philosophical basis for the foundation of Indonesia. After the Coup of September 30,1965,Tamansiswa was criticized because it was considered to lack the religious principle. Tamansiswa did not revise its principles, however, but explained that the principle of the natural law (kodrat alam) of Pancadarma was connected with the first principle of Pancasila, that is, belief in the One and Only God, because natural law was created by the God.
東南アジア研究 34 (1), 21-34, 1996-06