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白頭山(長白山)の爆発的噴火史の再検討

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  • Reexamination of explosive eruption history of Baitoushan (Changbaishan) volcano

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Baitoushan volcano (Changbaishan volcano in China), situated on the border between China and North Korea, is one of the most active volcanoes in mainland Asia. The volcanism is divided into three stages, firstly the shield volcano-forming stage effusing large amount of basaltic lava flow, secondly volcanic cone-building stage consisting of trachytic magma, and finally summit caldera (called Tianchi caldera)-forming stage erupting the vigorous alkali-rhyolitic pyroclastics. Tianchi caldera has been formed by some huge eruptions (10th century, 4000yBP eruption and more) since Pleistocene. In caldera-forming stage, the time sequence of such huge eruption progress from Plinian pyroclastic fall to following large pyroclastic flow (ignimbrite). Based on our geological and petrological studies and Radiocarbon dating about wood and charcoal samples in pyroclastics, we found that 9th century eruption, unknown until now, has occurred before 10th century eruption. From the relation of stratigraphy and radiocarbon age the dormancy between this episode and 10th century one is estimated about a hundred year. The time sequence and eruptive style of this new episode is similar to 10th century eruption, but the magma composition is different.

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