青年期における自己有能感 : 日本人・帰国子女日本人・日系米国人・白系米国人の比較
- The Cultural Study of Self-competence in Adolescence : Japanese, Japanese Returnee, Japanese-American and Angle American Junior High School and University Students
Self-competence in adolescence was investigated to determine the cultural differences, if any, among Japanese, Japanese returnees, Japanese-Americans and Anglo-Americans. Three kinds of domain-specific self-competence measures (that is, real-self evaluation, importance evaluation, and the discrepancy/congruence between real-self and importance evaluations) were examined. With regard to the 8th grade students, 374 Japanese (197 females and 177 males), 39 Japanese returnees (19 females and 20 males), 75 Japanese-Americans (36 females and 39 males), and 59 Anglo-Americans (26 females and 33 males) were examined. Similarly, with regard to the sophomores in university, 218 Japanese (115 females and 103 males), 70 Japanese returnees (50 females and 20 males), 92 Japanese-Americans (45 females and 47 males) and 147 Anglo-Americans (74 females and 73 males) were examined. The Japanese revised edition of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescence (Harter, 1980) was used for the 8th grade students, while the Self-Perception Profile for College Students (Neeman and Harter, 1986) was used for the university sophomores. 8th Grade Students: 1. The domain-specific self-competences of the Japanese and the Japanese-returnees are consistently lower in the scholastic and friendship competences than their counterparts. This shows that they do not perceive themselves to be efficient enough. 2. The Japanese, Japanese-returnees and Japanese-Americans show higher importance evaluations in almost all domains of self-competence. 3. The discrepancy scores which appeared in the 8th grade students indicate that they tend to aspire to realize their ideal competence. This is especially prominent in the case of the Japanese and the Japanese-returnees. University Students: 1. The perceived self-competences show significant gender differences in almost all domains. Females constantly indicate higher scores than males. 2. The importance scores of scholastic competence of the Japanese and the Japanese-returnees were significantly lower than tho
se of the 8th grade students. 3. The discrepancy scores in the Japanese and the Japanese-returnees indicate that they tend to aspire to realize their ideal competence in the friendship domain. Factorial Structures among Self-competence Domains: The domains of inner resources (scholastic competence, physical appearance, morality) are very different from those of interpersonal resources (friendship and family relationships) in the case of the Japanese and the Japanese-returnee students, whereas the two kinds of domains intertwine in the case of Japanese-American and Anglo-American students. It seems that this finding can be explained by noting that the Japanese and Japanese-returnee students define their self-competence by means of the dichotomy of individuation versus relatedness, while the Japanese-Americans and Anglo-American do so by means of a unity of individuation and relatedness.
東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 61 25-54, 2000