A series of carcinoid cases, 3,126 reported and 1,180 autopsied, were statistically analyzed from various clinicopathologic viewpoints of site(organ)-distribution of carcinoids with a comparative evaluation between Japanese and US/European series, age-distribution and sex preponderance of the patients, clinical manifestations including the carcinoid syndrome, and pathology consisting of histologic patterns, silver impregnations, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. It is considered that the concept, definition and diagnostic criteria of carcinoids, particularly of atypical varieties, and of related endocrinomas represent some controversial points that have to reach a general agreement. It is emphasized that the immunological techniques, consisting of amine/peptide hormone assays in the serum and tumor tissue extracts and histochemistry (immunocytochemistry) in the tissue preparations, that have been recently developed and popularized for practical use, will play an important role in elucidating the pathological entity of carcinoids as gut-endocrinomas.
Acta medica et biologica = Acta medica et biologica 42 (3), 87-102, 1994-09
Niigata University School of Medicine