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分権化と多様化--集権化・ネットワーク化との関連において

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  • Decentralization and Diversification

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As three stages or phases of social system we can distinguish centralization, decentralization and network system. The central mental traits (ETHOS) of these phases are as follows: centralization corresponds to efficiency and effectiveness; decentralization to freedom and autonomy; network or networking to the meaning and identity of one's life. Concepts of centralization-decentralization have been, to some extent, ambiguous and not always precise. To make it more precise, three fields of the centralization-decentralization are distinguished. Depending on whether autonomous power is strong or weak, two kinds of decentralization are distinguished. Qualitative approach depending on Idealtypus are adopted for the comparative study of the three phases of social systems. Examples are cited from institutional approach around German(BRD) and Japanese cases. Quantitative approach are developed by J.R.Hollingsworth and R.Hanneman. Centralizing trends are measured in the educational and medical fields both in the United States of America and Great Britain (England and Wales).

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identifier:KJ00009353899

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