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Characteristics of Children with Health Impairment and their Education in the Field of Special Support Education

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As medical technology has developed, diseases in childhood including childhood cancer, nephritis of children and cardiac disorder, which were difficult to cure in the past, have been completely curable or children with those diseases become able to survive for a long term. Due to the long-term survival, the educational opportunities have been expanded and the educational needs of children with health impairment and their parents have been heightened and diversified. In this context, as Special Education Promotion Law of South Korea in 2005 was partially amended including children with health impairment caused by chronic diseases in the category of disabilities for special education, they got to receive services. This study intended to understand the characteristics and current situations of children with health impairment and reviewed the educational supports and teaching methods for children with health impairment. Literature review focusing on the analyses on precedent studies for related areas was employed for the research method. Even though there are differences among children with health impairment depending on their physical conditions caused by diseases, they commonly feel more anxiety and depression than healthy children of same age and struggle with problems including stress caused by changes in the body during treatment, difficulty in forming relationships with teachers and peers, maladjustment to society and schools, etc. In South Korea, for these children with health impairment, diverse educational support methods have been implemented including educational supports by hospital school, supports to help them return to school, persistent support within schools, supports through communication media, itinerant educational supports, etc. There are problems in the course of providing educational support, for example, the lack of personnel and budget, regional inequality of facilities, unsystematic system and improvement of awareness. To solve these problems, countermeasures such as sufficient supplement of special education teachers and volunteers, expansion of facilities, building the network of related agencies and education for the improvement of awareness need to be implemented.

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