中学生のコミュニケーションにおける理論的な思考力の育成 : 理由づけの質に着眼して
- Cultivation of Logical Thinking Skills in Communications Between Junior High School Students
- チュウガクセイ ノ コミュニケーション ニ オケル ロンリテキ ナ シコウリョク ノ イクセイ : リユウ ヅケ ノ シツ ニ チャクガン シテ
In Japanese language education, communication skills have tended to be discussed from an aspect of either “other people and relationships” or “logicality and thinking abilities”. In order to integrate the two aspects, our study focused on the argumentation theory. Based on this theory, four elements are essentiol for bringing discussions to a successful conclusion: claim, evidence, reasoning, and rebuttal. We believe in particular that integration of the two aspects in communications will be materialized by extracting experiences of the learners through reasoning. Therefore, the objective of this study is clarification of the process of required interactions in discussions between the learners, and between the learner and a teacher, in order to achieve increased quality of reasoning, which utilize analogies based on the learner’s own experiences.As a result of an analysis of practices, it was revealed there were two phases in the interaction, which extracts high-quality reasoning through discussions. In the first phase, evidence is reanalyzed after encountering “evidence from a new viewpoint”, or an “rebuttal that denies the learner’s own opinion”. In the next phase, the learner sympathizes with the other opininons through “reasoning from a standpoint of the other person”. Through these phases, the learners begin to consider “if I were in that situation”. “Questioning and asking explanation for reasoning” at this point leads to extraction of high-quality reasoning.
熊本大学教育学部紀要 64 9-16, 2015-12-18