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南宋建国期の武将勢力に就いての一考察:特に張・韓・劉・岳の四武将を中心として

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  • A Study of the Influence of Generals at the Beginning of the Southern Sung Dynasty

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At the time when the Southern Sung dynasty was founded, the government was faced with the defense against the invasion of the Chin army from outside and with the suppression of rebels inside. In order to provide against such a crisis they were obliged to rely upon the activity of generals so that the power of these generals was enlarged. Such military power was represented by four men, namely Chang Chün 張俊, Han Hsi-ch’ung 韓世忠, Liu Kuang-hsi 劉光世, and Yüeh Fei 岳飛. All of these people were born of humble parents and fought for the reconstruction of the Sung dynasty. They distinguished themselves in defending the Chin army and subdued rioters whose followers they made their subordinates. Thus in 1133 each of them became a great power, possessing fourteen or fifteen thousand soldiers. Since 1129 when many Chên-fu-shih 鎭撫使 were appointed in the areas north of the Yangtzŭ river, they were invested with full powers of administering each district. The four generals gradually took their places and ruled over wide districts as Hsüan-fu-shih 宣撫使. As a result they occupied important political positions. The real power supporting the Southern Sung dynasty was nothing but a synthesis of power of those four generals. But the development of their influence threatened the government as a centrifugal and dangerous factor. Thus the dynasty encountered with a great contradiction in the process of founding the country. It was Ch’in Kuei 秦檜 who dealt with the solution of the problem. He is notorious as he was responsible for the death of Yüeh Fei

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