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栄山江流域における円筒埴輪の展開過程 (第4部 総論)


  • The Process of Development of Cylindrical Haniwa in the Yeongsan River Basin (Part IV)




In this paper, we review the process of development of cylindrical haniwa or terracotta clay figures discovered in the Yeongsan river basin in the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula. In light of the newly found materials in recent years, we present our personal opinions at this stage. Specifically, we examined the characteristics of the shapes and building techniques based on findings of observations of the haniwa excavated from the Yeongam Taegam-ri Jarabong Gobun, Hampyeong, and Kimsangri trapezoidal kofun and remains of old historical sites closely related to these. As a result, it was confirmed that the haniwa of the Yeongam Taegam-ri Jarabong Gobun belong to a group of cylindrical haniwa made using inverted molding technique common in this region. On the other hand, haniwa of the Kimsangri kofun and those from the remains of old historical sites were made using the upright molding technique similar to that of the haniwa in the Japanese archipelago. Besides, the arrangement technique and pressure techniques were used to create these clay bands, and it is clear that these belonged to technological genealogy previously not known in the Yeongsan river basin.Based on the above results, the cylindrical haniwa in the Yeongsan river basin were broadly divided into three categories; the inverted molding system, the clay band layout system, and the perforated bottom system with the preliminary process of development shown. In particular, we point out that regarding the inverted molding system that constitutes the principal system in the Yeongsan river basin, the inverted molding production process in which the reversing task is repeated twice is fundamentally different from the inverting technique seen in some haniwa of the Japanese archipelago. We explain that the same procedure is a succession of the molding technique for the type of haniwa represented by the Deoksan-ri Gobun 9, which faithfully expresses the original earthenware shape in its upper half. The haniwa of the Yeongam Taegam-ri Jarabong Gobun have curving and sloping modifications in the border area of the top half and lower half portions. Hence are positioned as resource material of the period of transition from the Deoksan-ri Gobun number 9 to the haniwa exhibiting the standard cylindrical form. Through this transition period, one can understand the transformation to a shape that is more uniform than the previous case of the Myeonghwa-dong Janggobun and the Wolgye-dong Janggobun number 1.In addition to these, in the Yeongsan river basin, we also intermixed sparingly; the clay band layout system, the perforated bottom system, as well as the haniwa whose outer surface has undergone tatehake adjustment and which have a striking resemblance to the ones in the Japanese archipelago. These showcase how the development process of the haniwa in this region was never unified. There is no doubt that opportunities to introduce haniwa were numerous reflecting the various exchanges between all the powers in the river basin and the Japanese archipelago.



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