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栄山江流域における円筒埴輪の展開過程 (第4部 総論)

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タイトル別名
  • The Process of Development of Cylindrical Haniwa in the Yeongsan River Basin (Part IV)

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本稿では,朝鮮半島南西部の栄山江流域で出土する円筒埴輪の展開過程について,近年の新出資料を踏まえて再検討し,現段階での私見を述べた。具体的には,霊巌・チャラボン古墳,咸平・金山里方台形古墳およびそれと密接な関係にある老迪遺跡から出土した埴輪について,観察所見を踏まえて形態・製作技術の特徴を詳細に検討した。その結果,チャラボン古墳の埴輪は,この地域において一般的である倒立成形技法を用いる円筒埴輪の一群に属すものであることが確認できた。その一方で,金山里古墳・老迪遺跡の埴輪は,日本列島の埴輪と同様に正立成形技法で形作られ,かつ突帯製作に割付技法や押圧技法を用いており,従来,栄山江流域では知られていなかった技術系譜に属すことが明らかとなった。以上の成果を踏まえて,栄山江流域における円筒埴輪を倒立成形系列,突帯割付系列,有底穿孔系列の3系列に大別し,その展開過程について予察を示した。とりわけ,栄山江流域において主体をなす倒立成形系列について,反転作業を2回繰り返す倒立成形の工程が日本列島の一部の埴輪でみられる倒立技法とは根本的に異なることを指摘し,同技法が上半部に本来的な土器形状を忠実に表現する徳山里9号墳に代表されるタイプの埴輪の成形技法を継承したものであることを説いた。チャラボン古墳の埴輪は,上半部と下半部の境界付近に屈曲や傾斜変換をもつ点で,徳山里9号墳タイプから通常の円筒形を呈する埴輪への移行期の資料と位置づけられる。そうした過渡期を経て,明花洞古墳例や月桂洞1号墳例にみるより単調な形状へと変遷するものと理解できる。栄山江流域ではこのほかにも,現状では類例が少ないものの,突帯割付系列や有底穿孔系列,さらには日本列島のものに酷似する外面タテハケ調整の埴輪も混在しており,この地域の埴輪の展開過程が決して一元的ではなかった様子が明らかになりつつある。埴輪の導入契機は,複数存在したとみて間違いなく,流域内の各勢力と日本列島との多元的な交流を反映したものと評価される。

In this paper, we review the process of development of cylindrical haniwa or terracotta clay figures discovered in the Yeongsan river basin in the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula. In light of the newly found materials in recent years, we present our personal opinions at this stage. Specifically, we examined the characteristics of the shapes and building techniques based on findings of observations of the haniwa excavated from the Yeongam Taegam-ri Jarabong Gobun, Hampyeong, and Kimsangri trapezoidal kofun and remains of old historical sites closely related to these. As a result, it was confirmed that the haniwa of the Yeongam Taegam-ri Jarabong Gobun belong to a group of cylindrical haniwa made using inverted molding technique common in this region. On the other hand, haniwa of the Kimsangri kofun and those from the remains of old historical sites were made using the upright molding technique similar to that of the haniwa in the Japanese archipelago. Besides, the arrangement technique and pressure techniques were used to create these clay bands, and it is clear that these belonged to technological genealogy previously not known in the Yeongsan river basin.Based on the above results, the cylindrical haniwa in the Yeongsan river basin were broadly divided into three categories; the inverted molding system, the clay band layout system, and the perforated bottom system with the preliminary process of development shown. In particular, we point out that regarding the inverted molding system that constitutes the principal system in the Yeongsan river basin, the inverted molding production process in which the reversing task is repeated twice is fundamentally different from the inverting technique seen in some haniwa of the Japanese archipelago. We explain that the same procedure is a succession of the molding technique for the type of haniwa represented by the Deoksan-ri Gobun 9, which faithfully expresses the original earthenware shape in its upper half. The haniwa of the Yeongam Taegam-ri Jarabong Gobun have curving and sloping modifications in the border area of the top half and lower half portions. Hence are positioned as resource material of the period of transition from the Deoksan-ri Gobun number 9 to the haniwa exhibiting the standard cylindrical form. Through this transition period, one can understand the transformation to a shape that is more uniform than the previous case of the Myeonghwa-dong Janggobun and the Wolgye-dong Janggobun number 1.In addition to these, in the Yeongsan river basin, we also intermixed sparingly; the clay band layout system, the perforated bottom system, as well as the haniwa whose outer surface has undergone tatehake adjustment and which have a striking resemblance to the ones in the Japanese archipelago. These showcase how the development process of the haniwa in this region was never unified. There is no doubt that opportunities to introduce haniwa were numerous reflecting the various exchanges between all the powers in the river basin and the Japanese archipelago.

source:https://www.rekihaku.ac.jp/outline/publication/ronbun/ronbun9/index.html#no217

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