In the carolingian period, it was for the most part small peasants under big landownerships who pursued the iron-working. As tenants of small soil, indeed their social status was not so high. But they were not subordinate entirely to their load. To a certain extent, the lord admitted them to carry on their metier for themselves. In other words, the majority of blacksmiths also engaged in farming as a side job. It means, on one hand, a demand for the iron-work was not so big as they could live by the iron-working alone. But on the other, we must not pass over the fact that they combined iron-working and agriculture to subsist on these double incomes. Thanks to this, the ironware, one of the necessaries of life, could come to hand of peoples without a great difficult. The lord himself, concentrated at the controle of their supply. By means of this, he contemplated integrating all of habitants, both inside and outside of his manor, into his zone of influence.
文学部論叢 101 11-19, 2010-03-10