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Lateral female strobili production in a Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) clone by exogenous cytokinin application

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Application of N6-benzylaminopurine(BAP) and gibberellin(GA3) to a grafted Japanese red pine(Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) clone promoted flowering. BAP(250mg/l) was sprayed five times to the top of branches in July or September 1992. GA3(100 or 500mg/l) was applied five times to the whole plants by spray treatment during the above period, or GA3 solution of the same concentration was injected once into a small incision made in the main stem of clone trees at the beginning of July or the middle of September 1992. In May 1993, no apical female strobili were observed at the top of the new shoots in any treatment. However, lateral female and bisexual strobili were produced in the lower part of new shoots by BAP application in September, regardless of GA3 application. BAP applied in September without GA3 application was sufficient to produce lateral female and bisexual strobili. In such treatment, production of female and bisexual strobili was 47 and 25, and they occurred in 16 out of 68 new shoots, 11 out of 15 treated branches and 5 out of 5 treated trees. The average number of female and bisexual strobili per new shoot was 1.06. BAP treatment either in July or in September significantly decreased (p<0.005) the production of male strobili. These results indicate that BAP application induces the development of lateral female strobili in Japanese red pine when applied during the period of floral differentiation.

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