During the Edo period, Japan was closed off from the outside world. English, Russian and American expeditions made various attempts to opne up Japan so that they could establish some kind of trading relationship, but were all met with a stern refusal from the Japanese government. Then in 1853 and the next year, Commodore Matthew C. Perry came and bluffed Japan into opening herself to the U.S.A., giving two white flags and directions in the case of a Japanese surrender. In addition, Perry colonized the Bonin Islands, a functional transit port located halfway between Japan and the U.S.A.
国際人間学部紀要 = International human studies 15 1-29, 2009-03-31