Acute kidney injury and acyclovir-associated encephalopathy after administration of valacyclovir in an elderly person with normal renal function A case report and literature review
Introduction: Acyclovir (ACV)-associated encephalopathy is related to an increase in plasma levels of 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine, an ACV metabolite, and is often reported in patients with renal dysfunction. We report a case of ACV-associated encephalopathy with rapid progression of renal dysfunction after oral administration of valacyclovir (VACV) and review literature of previous ACV-associated encephalopathy cases. Patient concerns: An 88-year-old man was diagnosed with herpes zoster. VACV (3000 mg/day) treatment was initiated. Serum creatinine (Cr) level was 0.80 mg/dL. However, irritability, memory impairment, and decreased responsiveness occurred after 3 days. The Cr level was 6.76 mg/dL on admission. Diagnosis: He was diagnosed with ACV-associated encephalopathy with acute kidney injury. Interventions: VACV was discontinued, hemodialysis was initiated on the day of admission, and then the signs and symptoms improved approximately 72 hours after the admission. Conclusion: Worsening of renal function and encephalopathy should be a focus when using VACV or ACV, regardless of age and original renal function. Acute kidney injury and ACV-associated encephalopathy may particularly occur in the elderly even when renal function is normal. Therefore, regular monitoring of renal function and consciousness is necessary during VACV treatment.
Medicine 100 (21), e26147-, 2021-05-28
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins