PLENTY, a hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferase, negatively regulates root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus



Legumes can survive in nitrogen-deficient environments by forming root-nodule symbioses with rhizobial bacteria; however, forming nodules consumes energy, and nodule numbers must thus be strictly controlled. Previous studies identified major negative regulators of nodulation in Lotus japonicus, including the small peptides CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-RELATED-ROOT SIGNAL1 (CLE-RS1), CLE-RS2, and CLE-RS3, and their putative major receptor HYPERNODULATION AND ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION1 (HAR1). CLE-RS2 is known to be expressed in rhizobia-inoculated roots, and is predicted to be post-translationally arabinosylated, a modification essential for its activity. Moreover, all three CLE-RSs suppress nodulation in a HAR1-dependent manner. Here, we identified PLENTY as a gene responsible for the previously isolated hypernodulation mutant plenty. PLENTY encoded a hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferase orthologous to ROOT DETERMINED NODULATION1 in Medicago truncatula. PLENTY was localized to the Golgi, and an in vitro analysis of the recombinant protein demonstrated its arabinosylation activity, indicating that CLE-RS1/2/3 may be substrates for PLENTY. The constitutive expression experiments showed that CLE-RS3 was the major candidate substrate for PLENTY, suggesting the substrate preference of PLENTY for individual CLE-RS peptides. Furthermore, a genetic analysis of the plenty har1 double mutant indicated the existence of another PLENTY-dependent and HAR1-independent pathway negatively regulating nodulation.


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