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有資格と無資格のはぎまで -看護の専門職化と戦後の秋田における無資格看護-


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  • Between Licensed and Unlicense:The Professionalization of Nurse and a Postwar History of Unlicensed Nurses in Akita

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The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the postwar history of unlicensed nurses in Akita Prefecture.After World War n, under the control of GHQ (General Headquarters of the Allied Powers), the Public Health Nurse, Midwife and Nurse Law was enacted in 1948. Since then the professionalization of nurse and the improvement of their social status have been fostered in Japan, by law, educational system, administrative system, professional organization, amelioration of working conditions and the qualification through national or prefectural examination, but behind this postwar front-stage history, various unlicensed nurseshave been produced, and their existence has been most frequently neglected in the official statistics, the statistics of Japanese Nursing Association which has propelled the postwar professionalization of nurse forward,and history of nursing and nurse in Japan.The postwar reformation of nurse and nursing system caused the severe shortage of nurse, especiallyin rural regions and small hospitals and clinics of solo-practitioner, and the postwar economic growthsteered people away from becoming nurse because of its hard working conditions: low wages, night sift,hard work, bad image since prewar period. In order to resolve the shortage of nurse, Akita City Medical Association established Training School of Subsidiary Nurse (hojyo-kangofu youseijyo) in 1962 and Akita Medical Association established Correspondence School of Secondary Nurse Ifuku-kango gakuin) in 1964 which was changed its name to Correspondence School of Medical-Secretary (MS gakuin) in 1976. The student of these schools also worked as nursing staff in hospital or clinic of a member of these Medical Associations.Subsidiary Nurse (hojyo-kangofu), Secondary Nurse Ifuku-kangofu) and Medical-Secretary are not'nurse' stipulated by law, so that even though the student graduates these schools, their official status is not nurse but the unlicensed.This paper explains raison d'etre of the unlicensed nursing staffs and its schools in terms of not onlythe shortage of nurse, the postwar economic growth, social conditions and institutions, but also thedoctors' conception of nursing and nurse at that time, which reflected gender bias against nursing, based on the dualism of humanity and kindness (non-qualification, woman) versus intelligence and higher education (qualification, man).




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