[Updated on Apr. 18] Integration of CiNii Articles into CiNii Research

雍正年間における清朝の青海モンゴル支配の実態―統属関係への介入と盟旗制の運用を中心として―

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  • ヨウセイ ネンカン ニ オケル シンチョウ ノ オウミ モンゴル シハイ ノ ジッタイ : トウゾク カンケイ エ ノ カイニュウ ト メイキセイ ノ ウンヨウ オ チュウシン ト シテ
  • The Actual Situation of the Qing Dynasty’s Rule over the Qinghai Mongols during the Yongzheng Era: Qing’s Intervention in the Ruler-Subject Relationship and the Utilization of the League-Banner System

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Abstract

This article investigates the actual situation surrounding the way in which the Qing Dynasty established its rule over the Mongols of Qinghai in the second year of the Yongzheng Era (1724). The research to date has shown the framework of Qing rule, including the League-Banner (盟旗) system, while the present article focuses on the dissolution of the Qinghai Mongol subjugation of the Tibetans and how the League-Banner system was actually utilized, in order to clarify Qing rule within the fluid situation characterizing Eurasia at that time. When the Qinghai Mongols were subordinated under the Qing Dynasty, the Qing court then dissolved the ruler-subject relationship between the Qinghai Mongols and the Tibetans. This dissolution policy, which had been under deliberation at the Qing court since the Kangxi Era (1662–1722), was designed to stabilize the Dynasty’s rule over Qinghai. On the other hand, since this same policy caused the impoverishment of the Qinghai Mongols by preventing them from exploiting the Tibetans, Emperor Yongzheng provided generous economic aid in the form of awards of silver, in order to prevent them from seceding from China. After opening hostilities with the Zunghars at the end of the 8th year of Yongzheng (1730), the Qing Dynasty ordered ten thousand troops to be mobilized by the niru (佐領) banner chieftains of the Qinghai Mongol population to act as a border defense force. However, some of those chieftains had misgivings about such a large scale mobilization, took flight and revolted against the Qing. In response, Emperor Yongzheng, perceiving the Court’s economic support had been insufficient, decided to reduce the number of troops to be mobilized and turn mobilization over to specific banner chieftains appointed by the Qing Dynasty as jasak (扎薩克).Although such conditions on the ground forced the Qing Dynasty to economically support the Qinghai Mongols and to make compromises concerning how to utilize the League-Banner System, these measures were judged to have destabilized the ruler-subject relationship between the Qinghai Mongols and the Tibetans, and led to their complete dissolution. By focusing on the fluidity in the transition to establishing stable rule over the Qinghai Mongol, the author has brought into relief one aspect of Qing Dynasty rule; that is, changing the status quo through flexible operation of existing governance mechanisms.

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