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- DISTINGUISHING PASSIVE AND TE-MORAU FORMS BASED ON A SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC VERB CLASSIFICATION -THROUGH EXAMINATION OF 'SUFFERING' PASSIVE-
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Given the current state of affairs in which we find both confusion and non-use of passive and te-morau verb forms by learners of Japanese, we analyzed the use of both forms, hoping to provide some implications useful for the teaching of these forms in the future. In order to distinguish these forms, we must first understand the difference between the two kinds of passive, namely, 'suffering' passives and ordinary passives. We need to know with what kinds of sentence structure or verbs use of the passive implies the suffering of trouble or harm, and with what kinds of sentence structure or verbs it has merely a neutral passive meaning. Generally, the 'suffering' passive is called the 'indirect' passive, but in this paper we define it as a passive in which a feeling of suffering of trouble or harm arises out of use of the passive form, despite the fact that the active form includes no such feeling. Based on our Classification of Verbs (動詞分類表, Tanaka and Tateoka, 1991), we examined those verbs whose passive use implies suffering, and further investigated their relationship to -te morau forms. We determined that the verbs can be grouped into two categories, as exemplified by the following: [table] In both groups 1 and 2, there is no feeling of trouble or harm implied in the use of the active form of the verb, but in Group 1 use of the passive gives rise to a feeling of suffering or harm, while in Group 2 no such feeling occurs. We determined that the te-morau forms of the verbs in Group 1, the suffering passive group, constitute a causative te-morau use, while those of Group 2 verbs, the neutral passive group, constitute a passive te-morau use. We hope through clarification of the use of these forms, to help Japanese language learners avoid causing unpleasant feelings or misunderstandings in their native Japanese listeners through either unintentional use of the 'suffering' passive or inappropriate use of te-morau forms.
- ICU 日本語教育研究センター紀要 = The Research Center for Japanese Language Education Annual Bulletin
ICU 日本語教育研究センター紀要 = The Research Center for Japanese Language Education Annual Bulletin 2 235-256, 1992-08-31
International Christian University