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Adaptor functions of the Ca2+-binding protein ALG-2 in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum

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Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) is a Ca2+-binding protein with five repetitive EF-hand motifs, named penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain. It interacts with various target proteins and functions as a Ca2+-dependent adaptor in diverse cellular activities. In the cytoplasm, ALG-2 is predominantly localized to a specialized region of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), called the ER exit site (ERES), through its interaction with Sec31A. Sec31A is an outer coat protein of coat protein complex II (COPII) and is recruited from the cytosol to the ERES to form COPII-coated transport vesicles. I will overview current knowledge of the physiological significance of ALG-2 in regulating ERES localization of Sec31A and the following adaptor functions of ALG-2, including bridging Sec31A and annexin A11 to stabilize Sec31A at the ERES, polymerizing the Trk-fused gene (TFG) product, and linking MAPK1-interacting and spindle stabilizing (MISS)-like (MISSL) and microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) to promote anterograde transport from the ER.



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