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Microsatellite markers developed using a next-generation sequencing technique for Neotrogla spp. (Psocodea: Prionoglarididae), cave dwelling insects with sex-reversed genitalia

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The genus Neotrogla (Psocodea: Prinoglarididae) comprises four named species from Brazil. Females of this cave‐dwelling insect are characterized by a conspicuous penis‐like intromittent organ, termed a gynosome, which is inserted into the vagina‐like male genitalia during copulation. Another evolutionarily novel structure, the spermathecal plate, enables a female to simultaneously store two freshly deposited spermatophores (consisting of sperm and possibly nutritious substances) in her sperm storage organ (spermatheca). It is unknown whether the two spermatophores are derived from two different males. To investigate the mating ecology and population genetic structures of these insects with sex‐reversed genitalia, 16 novel highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized based on ~2,275 Mbp genomic sequences from an undescribed Neotrogla species. Our first screening detected 99,888 candidate loci. Similar to other hemipteroid insects studied thus far, AAT motif microsatellites were conspicuously dominant. We further screened 99 sequences, for which 50 pairs of polymerase chain reaction primers were successfully designed. Sixteen of these primers successfully amplified products of the expected size in the 11 Neotrogla sp. individuals collected from two caves. The number of alleles per loci varied from two to nine, with no significant deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in either population. Although the caves sampled were only approximately 1 km apart, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations. In total, 13, 12, 13 and 11 loci were cross‐amplified in N. aurora, N. brasiliensis, N. curvata and N. truncata, respectively, indicating the applicability of these microsatellite loci for metapopulation genetic studies in multiple Neotrogla species.



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