大乗集菩薩学論Siksasamuccaya所引の金剛幢経における代受苦

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  • 大乗集菩薩学論 Śikṣāsamuccaya 所引の金剛幢経における代受苦
  • ダイジョウシュウ ボサツガクロン Siksasamuccayaショイン ノ コンゴウトウケイ ニ オケル ダイジュク
  • The Substituting for Suffering of Others (Daijuku) as a Virtuous Conduct of Bodhisattva in the Vajradhvajasūtra or the Diamond Flag Sutra Quoted in the Śikṣāsamuccaya and Its Classical Chinese Version

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Abstract

The Śikṣā-samuccaya is a compendium of Buddhist learning of virtuous conducts and consists of concise explanations and plenty of quotations from various Mahāyāna sūtras, as is suggested by the name of its classical Chinese version, the Dàchéng-jí-bèisà-jíào-lún (大乗集菩薩学論). According to its Tibetan translation and commentary, the author and compiler of the text is Śāntideva (circa 650 to 700 CE), although Dharmakīrti (circa seventh century CE) is referred to as the author in the Chinese version. It is said that Śāntideva was a Buddhist monk and scholar belonging to the Prāsaṅgika branch of Mādhyamaka school, and wrote the Bodhicaryāvatāra, the Śikṣāsamuccaya, and the work named ‘the Collection of Sutras’. Unfortunately, the third work was dispersed. Both of the former two works explain and exhort virtuous conducts of Bodhisattva as one of the ways to enlightenment from the stand point of śūnya. The Śikṣāsamuccaya quotes approximately ninety titles and various kinds of Buddhist scriptures such as the Wisdom Sutras (般若経), the Vimalakīrti-sūtra (維摩経), the Lotus Sutra(法華経), and others. Among them, the Daśabhūmika-sūtra and the Gaṇḍavyūha-sūtra formed parts of the large book of the Huà-yán-jīng (華厳経) in classical Chinese versions. Similarly, the scripture in the name of the Vajradhvaja-sūtra, meaning the Diamond Flag Sutra, or the Jīn-gāng-chuáng-jīng (金剛幢経) in Chinese, being quoted in the Śikṣāsamuccaya, is inferred to have formed a part of the Huàyán-jīng in two versions as the chapter of ten kinds of the transfer of merit of Vajradhvaja Bodhisattva (金剛瞳菩薩十廻向品) of the large book consisting of sixty volumes (六十華厳) as well as the chapter of ten kinds of the transfer of merit (十廻向品) of that consisting of eighty volumes (八十華厳). On the one hand, almost complete set of Sanskrit manuscripts of the Daśabhūmika-sūtra and that of the Gaṇḍavyūha-sūtra exist, on the other hand, any sets of Sanskrit manuscripts of the Vajradhvaja-sūtra no longer exist. By means of collecting passages quoted in the Śikṣāsamuccaya, there may be prospect of attempt to restore the original text of the Sutra in Sanskrit. The Śikṣāsamuccaya refers to the Vajradhvaja-sūtra four times and quotes considerable amount of passages from the Sutra in three places as following, in the first chapter explaining the perfection of virtuous contribution (dāna-pāramitā), in the twelfth chapter explaining the preparation of mind (citta-parikarma), and in the sixteenth chapter explaining the method of excellent conduct (bhadra-caryā-vidhi) of Bodhisattva. This paper focuses on descriptions of the concept of daijuku (代受苦) in quotations from the Vajradhvaja-sūtra in the third place mentioned above. Daijuku means ‘substituting for suffering of others’, and it indicates a special act that someone substitutes (代) for other living beings so as to accept (受) any sufferings and difficulties (苦) as retribution for others' evil acts. Such a substituting is extraordinary enough to deviate from the moral law of cause and effect, and difficult for ordinary people to do it. The substitute, i.e. the subject of daijuku, is an ideal character performing good deeds and roles, that is a great Bodhisattva in truth. The concept of daijuku is illustrated in the context of the first of ten kinds of the transfer of merit, i.e. ekō (廻向) in Japanese, in that chapter in the Huāyān-jīng. The first ekō was named as ‘ekō rescuing all living beings and letting them renounce worldly aspect (救護一切衆生離衆生相廻向)’. It can be expected that descriptions of daijuku is to be the key to identify quotations from the Vajradhvaja-sūtra in the Śikṣāsamuccaya with the chapter of ten kinds of the transfer of merit in the Huàyán-jīng. I translated passages containing the descriptions of daijuku in the Śikṣāsamuccaya from Sanskrit into Japanese, and compared it with its Chinese version (大乗集菩薩学論), the Huàyán-jīng consisting sixty volumes (六十華厳), and that consisting of eighty volumes (八十華厳). The results are as following. It was turned out that the Chinese version (大乗集菩薩学論) is not such a good one but an abridged translation not enough to trace sentences back to its original Sanskrit text. Passages of the Vajradhvaja-sūtra quoted in the Śikṣāsamuccaya are almost correspondent with descriptions in both of two versions of the Huàyán-jīng. Consequently, I found out several Sanskrit words and expressions which are nearly equivalent to daijuku and its synonyms for the substituting for suffering of others.

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