Associations among Bone Mineral Density, Physical Activity and Nutritional Intake in Middle-Aged Women with High Levels of Arterial Stiffness: A Pilot Study


There is little consensus regarding the impacts of physical activity and nutrient intake on bone mineral density (BMD) in subjects with high or low levels of arterial stiffness. This study was performed to investigate whether physical activity and nutrient intake are associated with BMD in middle-aged women with high levels of arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of middle-aged women aged 40-64 years (n = 22). BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) was used as an indicator of arterial stiffness. Subjects were divided into two groups by median cf-PWV. Physical activity in free-living conditions was evaluated using a triaxial accelerometer. Nutrient intake was also measured using the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. In the High-PWV group, BMD showed a significant negative correlation with age. Using a partial correlation model, BMD was associated with the number of steps and unsaturated fatty acid intake in the High-PWV group. These results suggest that BMD in middle-aged women with high levels of arterial stiffness may be associated with both the number of steps and nutritional intake. Recommendations of physical activity and nutritional intake for the prevention of osteopenia should include consideration of arterial stiffness.



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