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Gene amplification of CCNE1, CCND1, and CDK6 in gastric cancers detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization

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Abstract

New and effective treatments for advanced gastric cancer are urgently needed. Cyclins E and D1 form a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase 2, 4, or 6 to regulate G1-S transition. The G1-S regulatory genes encoding cyclin E (CCNE1), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and CDK6 (CDK6) are frequently amplified in gastric cancer and may therefore influence molecularly targeted therapies against ERBB2 or EGFR when coamplified. A total of 179 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded gastric cancer specimens were examined for these gene amplifications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Amplification of at least 1 G1-S regulatory gene was found in 35 tumors (CCNE1 amplification, 15% of samples; CCND1, 6%; CDK6, 1%). In 13 of the 35 tumors, dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization identified coamplification of the G1-S regulatory genes with ERBB2, EGFR, and/or KRAS in single cancer nuclei. The observation that cells with G1-S regulatory gene amplification contained clonal subpopulations with coamplification of ERBB2, EGFR, or KRAS in 5 early and 3 advanced cancers suggests that amplification of the G1-S regulatory genes represents an early event, which precedes ERBB2, EGFR, or KRAS amplification. Amplified CCNE1, CCND1, and CDK6 in advanced gastric cancer may be potentially useful as direct targets for molecular therapy or for combination therapy with ERBB2 or EGFR inhibitors. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification could be a useful tool for identification of patients who would benefit from such therapies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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