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  • Score Following Handling Performances with Arbitrary Repeats and Skips and Automatic Accompaniment

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Automated performance of an accompaniment score, synchronized to human performances, is called automatic accompaniment. It is applicable for practicings of ensemble music and live electronics, and its utility is large. Particularly in music practicings, performances with errors, repeats and skips are expected. However, conventional automatic accompaniment systems have difficulties in following those performances, or may handle only skips to specific locations in scores. In this paper, we study a robust automatic accompaniment capable of following performances with skips to arbitrary locations. We construct a hidden Markov model which describes the generation process of performances and propose a score following algorithm, which solves the probabilistic inverse problem of the model. To solve the problem of increasing processing time, a fast algorithm for estimating most likely states is proposed. To confirm the validity of the proposed score following algorithm, an evaluation test for the algorithm with human-played performances is performed. Furthermore, we construct an automatic accompaniment system Eurydice and confirm its operation.


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