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Insecticidal and repellent activities of pyrethroids to the three major pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in western Kenya



Background: The dramatic success of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in African countries has been countered by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes over the past decade. One advantage of the use of pyrethroids in ITNs is their excito-repellency. Use of the excito-repellency of pyrethroids might be biorational, since such repellency will not induce or delay the development of any physiological resistance. However, little is known about the relationship between the mode of insecticide resistance and excito-repellency in pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. Methods. Differences in the reactions of 3 major malaria vectors in western Kenya to pyrethroids were compared in laboratory tests. Adult susceptibility tests were performed using World Health Organization (WHO) test tube kits for F1 progenies of field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s., and laboratory colonies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. The contact repellency to pyrethroids or permethrin-impregnated LLINs (OlysetR Nets) was evaluated with a simple choice test modified by WHO test tubes and with the test modified by the WHO cone bioassay test. Results: Field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s. showed high resistance to both permethrin and deltamethrin. The allelic frequency of the point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014S) in An. gambiae s.s. was 99.3-100%, while no point mutations were detected in the other 2 species. The frequency of takeoffs from the pyrethroid-treated surface and the flying times without contacting the surface increased significantly in pyrethroid-susceptible An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis colonies and wild An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. colonies, while there was no significant increase in the frequency of takeoffs or flying time in the An. gambiae s.s. wild colony. Conclusion: A different repellent reaction was observed in the field-collected An. gambiae s.s. than in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. It might be that resistant mosquitoes governed by knockdown resistance (kdr) loose repellency to pyrethroids, whereas those lacking kdr maintain high repellency irrespective of their possessing metabolic resistance factors to pyrethroids. Further genetic evaluation is required for the demonstration of the above hypothesis.

identifier:Parasites & Vectors, 7(1), 208; 2014



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