Paraimmunobiotic Bifidobacteria Modulate the Expression Patterns of Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins in Porcine Intestinal Epitheliocytes and Antigen Presenting Cells

Abstract

<jats:p>Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are able to induce innate immune responses through their binding to peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide, or lipoteichoic acid, or by interacting with other PRR-ligands. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the immunobiology of PGLYRPs in human and mice, however, their functions in livestock animals have been less explored. In this study, we characterized the expression patterns of PGLYRPs in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and their modulation by the interactions of host cells with PRR-ligands and non-viable immunomodulatory probiotics referred to as paraimmunobiotics. We demonstrated that PGLYRP-1, -2, -3, and -4 are expressed in PIE cells and APCs from Peyer’s patches, being PGLYPR-3 and -4 levels higher than PGLYRP-1 and -2. We also showed that PGLYRPs expression in APCs and PIE cells can be modulated by different PRR agonists. By using knockdown PIE cells for TLR2, TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2, or the four PGLYRPs, we demonstrated that PGLYRPs expressions would be required for activation and functioning of TLR2, TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 in porcine epitheliocytes, but PGLYRPs activation would be independent of those PRR expressions. Importantly, we reported for the first time that PGLYRPs expression can be differentially modulated by paraimmunobiotic bifidobacteria in a strain-dependent manner. These results provide evidence for the use of paraimmunobiotic bifidobacteria as an alternative for the improvement of resistance to intestinal infections or as therapeutic tools for the reduction of the severity of inflammatory damage in diseases in which a role of PGLYRPs-microbe interaction has been demonstrated.</jats:p>

Journal

  • Cells

    Cells 8 (8), 891-, 2019-08-14

    MDPI AG

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