Changes in Employment Relations: From the Perspective of Job Autonomy

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  • 仕事の自律性からみた雇用関係の変化
  • シゴト ノ ジリツセイ カラ ミタ コヨウ カンケイ ノ ヘンカ

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Abstract

This article aims to examine the recent changes in employment relations by focusing on the “levels” and “distribution” of job autonomy among employees. The “level” of job autonomy among employees refers to the relationship between the employer and the employee, while the “distribution” refers to the inequalities in autonomy among the employees.<BR>By conducting both a confirmatory factor analysis and a path analysis, I found that the “levels” and “distribution” of job autonomy among employees changed during the period from 1979 to 2002. I utilized data from three surveys conducted in 1979, 2001, and 2002. The findings are as follows. For male employees, there was a decrease in the “level” of job autonomy and a change in the “distribution” of job autonomy from 1979 to 2001-02. As regards the changes in the “distribution” of job autonomy, while the effect of education on job autonomy grew weaker, occupation and age began to influence job autonomy. The skill and ratio of part-time workers in different occupations intervened between occupation and job autonomy. In other words, occupation influenced the skill and the ratio of part-time workers, which in turn influenced their job autonomy. I interpret these findings to suggest that in an environment where employers monitor their employees more strictly, the more skilled and difficult-to-replace employees are at an advantage in employment relations.

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