Reduction of Trihalomethanes and Total Organic Halogen of Advanced Treated Drinking Water Due to Heating and Boiling

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  • 煮沸による高度浄水処理水のトリハロメタンおよび全有機ハロゲン(TOX)濃度の変化
  • シャフツ ニ ヨル コウドジョウ スイ ショリ スイ ノ トリハロメタン オヨビ ゼン ユウキ ハロゲン TOX ノウド ノ ヘンカ

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Advanced drinking water treatment, which installed ozonation and activated carbon filtration into conventional treatment, has been in operation at all utilities of Osaka City (2.43 × 106m3/day) since March 2000 to minimize formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (e.g., trihalomethanes (THM) ) . However, persons who brew tea or coffee from boiled tap water are still larger than those who directly drink water from the tap. We examined the changes in THM and total organic halogen (TOX) of advanced treated water (ATW) due to heating or boiling.<BR>Total THM in ATW decreased with heating by using a kettle. Only chloroform was clearly generated when the water with chlorine was heated. THM were almost completely removed when the water was boiled for 1 min or less, regardless of using a kettle or an electric kettle. The reason of this is the reduction of precursors, intermediates and chlorine dose in the water due to the advanced treatment.<BR>While TOX was almost constant in conventionally treated water (CTW) that was heated to boiling by using a kettle, 20% of TOX was removed in ATW. Subsequently, the removal of TOX was 50% for 5min and 60% for 20min of boiling both in ATW and CTW. For leaving after boiling for lhr, TOX of CTW increased again. Using an electric kettle, 40% of TOX of ATW decreased at boiling and 26% after keeping hot for 3hrs. When the hot water was reboiling, TOX did not increase.<BR>Regardless of ATW, CTW or blend of each other, total THM calculated in terms of Cl equivalent could account for 32% of TOX. The removal of TOX from the heated water may be attributed to volatilization of THM and thermal decarboxylation of trihaloacetic acids.


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