Water and Human Beings : from the Physiological Viewpoint

  • TANAKA Masatoshi
    Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University

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  • 水とヒト : 生理的立場から
  • ミズ ト ヒト セイリテキ タチバ カラ

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Water is essential for humans to preserve life. It is possible for human beings to survive with drinking water for three or four weeks, even if they take no food. There are various relations between human beings and water. Humans take by the mouth about 2,200 ml of water a day. It is absorbed into the intestines, and various substances in the water are dissolved. The quantity of water a day which humans physiologically need is about 1,500 ml. Water in the body, that is, body fluids is about 50〜70% of body weight. As water is excreted by sweating and insensible perspiration, urination, etc. water balance in the body is maintained by the intake of water, by drinking water, etc. Many metabolisms are carried out mainly with water. It becomes the medium of digestion and absorption of food, secretion of hormones, and thermoregulation, such as sweating, etc. Water in the body is described herein as to its existence, its action, water imbalance in absorption and excretion by the body, and its threat to health, etc., from the physiological viewpoint.



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