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Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People

  • Hirata Ayumu
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital Kochi Medical Graduate School
  • Funato Hiroki
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital
  • Nakai Megumi
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital Kochi Medical Graduate School
  • Iizuka Michiro
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital
  • Abe Noriaki
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital Kochi Medical Graduate School
  • Yagi Yusuke
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital Kochi Medical Graduate School
  • Shiraishi Hisashi
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital Kochi Medical Graduate School
  • Jobu Kohei
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital
  • Yokota Junko
    Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital
  • Hirose Kahori
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kochi Medical School

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Abstract

We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (p<0.05). Among 10 subjects, one scored 1–3 using the four evaluation criteria. Overall, no aspiration occurred and a significant improvement in the swallowing function score was observed (p<0.05) after taking the ginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

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