The social impact of tramway construction in the suburbs of Marseille : the case of les Camoins (1872-1931)

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  • マルセイユ郊外における路面電車建設の社会的影響 : カルティエ・カモワンの事例から,1872~1931年
  • マルセイユ コウガイ ニ オケル ロメン デンシャ ケンセツ ノ シャカイテキ エイキョウ カルティエ カモワン ノ ジレイ カラ 1872 1931ネン

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Abstract

A characteristic feature of the urbanization of France from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 1930s was the process by which tramway networks were established in cities and, in particular, by which suburbs developed. Based on the examination of two main historical sources, the manuscript census registers and materials of the tramway management, this paper studies the social impact of tramway construction in the suburbs of Marseille by focusing on families and individuals. The quarter of les Camoins, located in a farming area approximately 13 kilometers from the city center, suffered from a population drain to urban areas in the mid-19th century. However, this quarter began to be reactivated when large-scale plants moved out to the suburbs and with the diffusion of urban-type agriculture from the end of the century. Although conflicting interests caused considerable delay in tramway construction, the opening of tramway traffic in 1907 accelerated reactivation of the area. Les Camoins as a health resort first gained strength in 1911, and in 1931, with the coming of the tram age, the quarter was transformed into a true residential area. Furthermore, local people began to settle there permanently, and people from other areas and other countries (mainly Italy) increased, lending a Mediterranean character to les Camoins and thus transforming a suburban quarter of a large city.

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